Practical Science on Movement and Pain

Why Slow Movement Builds Coordination

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I’ve written quite a bit on this blog about the benefits of moving slowly for improving coordination. Of course, my two favorite movement practices, the Feldenkrais Method and Z-Health rely to a great extent on slow mindful movement as a primary means to develop coordination. Many people will look at very slow and gentle movements and think – how can these possibly do anything? Isn’t harder and faster better than slower and softer? This post is an answer to that question.

There are several excellent reasons to use slow and gentle movement as a means to develop coordination. Probably the most interesting reason (I’ll start with that one) is based on an obscure principle called the Weber Fechner rule. The Weber Fechner rule describes the relationship between the magnitude of a particular stimulus and the brain’s ability to sense differences in the amount of the stimulus. The basic rule is that as you increase the stimulus, the ability to tell a difference in the amount of the stimulus decreases. This is a very common sense idea. Imagine you are in a dark room with only one candle lit. It will be very easy to sense the difference when one additional candle is lit. But if you are in a room with two hundred candles, you will have no idea when an extra candle comes on.

This rule works for all varieties of sensory perception, including sensations of muscular effort. So, imagine you are holding a one pound potato in your hand while blindfolded. If a fly landed on the weight you would not know the difference, but if a little bird landed you would know. Now imagine holding a fifty pound potato. You wouldn’t be able to feel the little bird landing. It would have to be an eagle. The point is that when you increase the weight from one pound to fifty pounds, you become about fifty times less sensitive to changes in the amount of muscular force you are using to lift the weight.

Why do we care? Because if you want to make your movement more efficient, you have to be aware of when you are working too hard. If you slow down and thereby increase your ability to sense differences in muscular effort level, you increase the brain’s ability to sense and correct any potential excess and unnecessary effort. Imagine that every time you try to extend the hip, you are at the same time slightly contracting the hip flexors instead of relaxing them. This means that your muscles are cross-motivated – the flexors are fighting the extensors a little in their effort to extend the leg, making them work harder. You will be much better able to sense and inhibit this inefficient co-contraction by moving very slowly and easily. By contrast, if you move fast and hard, you will never be able to sense and correct the problem.

Here’s another way to look at it. In an earlier post I discussed how accurate movement depends on a good proprioceptive map. When I say map I mean the physical areas of the brain responsible for controlling and sensing the movement at each body part. These brain areas or “maps” develop their neuronal linkages in response to physical practice and the sensory feedback that occurs as a result. So, for example, if you practice the piano for years, the part of your brain that senses and controls your finger movement will start to become more intricately and efficiently wired, and will even grow larger.

Applying the Weber Fechner rule, we know that gentle movement leads to a more accurate and discriminating perception of the mechanics of the movement. In other words, there is more detailed and refined information available to the brain to build the movement map. The map becomes clearer with greater resolution. It’s like clicking the zoom button on google maps. There’s more detail, more side streets are revealed, more information about how to move around that joint.

So, slow gentle movement will make your movement map clearer. It can also help make it broader, covering more territory, because slow movement is the best way to explore new movement territory. Your Central Nervous System (“CNS”) is inherently threatened by new movements, or moves you haven’t performed in years. It’s not going to let you go there unless you go slow and easy. In the Middle Ages, maps of the world included most of Europe, and then on the corners of the maps were serpents with the phrase – Here Be Dragons. Your brain’s map of movement starts to look similar as you age. The safe and familiar areas become smaller and smaller, while the unknown territories become bigger and bigger. Watch a kid playing at a playground for ten minutes and you will likely see many movements that are now off your movement grid. If you want to revisit these areas, you better start slow and easy.

This rule applies not only to difficult and potentially dangerous moves like a cartwheel or back flip. It also applies to everyday movements like simply turning your head to look behind you or sitting into a full squat. There is a huge variety of ways to do these simple movements, hundreds of different angles for the joints to assume and literally millions of different muscle activation patterns to execute them. As you age, you will likely use less and less of these movement possibilities until you are stuck in a narrow range of options. For example, there’s a good chance you have one or two thoracic vertebrae that almost never turn to the right. Or maybe there is a certain hip angle that you always unconsciously avoid – let’s say 30 degrees of flexion plus 10 degrees external rotation plus 15 degree of abduction. Maybe this angle became a problem after a knee surgery ten years ago. Your CNS learned to avoid it, and this became a habit. Now, because of sensory motor amnesia, it has effectively become a dead zone or Bermuda Triangle on your movement map. If you want to even find this spot, you will need to move slowly and mindfully, because any fast movement will simply activate the habitual way of moving and skip right over it. And when you do find the dead zone, you will want to be going slowly, because the soft tissues related to that area might be a little stiff and crusty after years of non use.

Another reason to move slowly and gently is to allow yourself time to approach movement in an exploratory and curious manner, and to put a great deal of attention on the subtle details of the movement. Becoming more coordinated is essentially a matter of rewiring the neural circuits that control movement, which is an example of a very fashionable process called “neuroplasticity.”  Neuroplasticity simply means the brain’s ability to change. According to Michael Merzenich and other prominent neuroscientists, attention and awareness are major preconditions for neuroplasticity to occur. In other words, your brain is much more likely to get better at a certain activity if you are paying close attention while doing it. Slow movement can help your ability to pay attention to exactly what you are doing when you are doing it.

It’s worth noting that the greatest leap forward in anyone’s movement education takes place in the first two years of life, a time when all movement is very slow and gentle curious and exploratory. In fact, Moshe Feldenkrais based much of his Method on his study of infant movement and motor development.

It is also significant that a great many elite athletes, musicians, and martial artists have used slow motion practice as a means to develop their skills. Ben Hogan, Monica Seles, and I’m sure many others who I don’t feel like looking up right now use slow motion movement as an important part of their practice routine. Probably Tiger Woods used slow motion practice too, and maybe even for his golf game. Even Olympic lifters, the most powerful athletes in the world, will spend substantial time improving their technique using only a broomstick.

Of course, at some point you will have to speed things up to use your skills in a more real world application, but it should be clear that slow movement presents some huge advantages that are not present in any other form of practice.

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48 Responses to Why Slow Movement Builds Coordination

  1. [...] Why Practice Slow Movement? « Better Movement [...]

  2. Another great post, thanks Todd,
    Stacy

  3. Edward Yu says:

    This is very well-written… I love it and will post it!

  4. Thanks, Todd, nice to find your blog. Although I must confess I don’t know if babies’ movements are that slow, I seem to remember some frantic scrambling and lurching around :-)

  5. Love the metaphors. Candles and maps. Makes total sense.

    And also makes me suspect that there’s a huge benefit to reading slowly (or reading out loud, which both slows you down and gives you double sensory perception of the words). Know of any research on that?

    • Todd Hargrove says:

      Jake,

      Interesting idea about the reading. I have never thought of that but I seem to recall reading (from feldenkrais) that reading activates the speech muscles very slightly, so that reading is almost always accompanied by minor motions of the tongue and mouth.

      • And maybe those movements are helpful to comprehension and memory? Especially if slow and deliberate (meditative)? Hmmm. If I ever bump into anything that supports or refutes this, I’ll send it along.

  6. Todd Hargrove says:

    Jake,

    Maybe so, I will need to think about that one. One of Feldenkrais’ points is that higher order functions such as reading or thinking or imagining movement use the existing neural structures that evolved earlier for moving. In fact, if children never develop certain movements, they will never develop the higher order thoughts and feelings that depend on those movements.

    In other words, the maps for moving the tongue get used for reading. I suppose its possible that a better map for the tongue would lead to better reading. That would be great if you send on anything you find. Thanks.

  7. Mary Morrison says:

    Thank you for this! Really great! I hope you don’t mind if I pass it along to my students!!!

  8. John D Wilson says:

    Great website. You make Z-Health more approachable than Z-Health (I have purchased three packages).

    This post drove me back to “Harvey Penick’s Little Red Book.” Harvey’s book ranks up there with Hogan’s. He was a “great” in his day coaching Tom Kite and Ben Crenshaw. In a chapter titled “The Slow Motion Drill” – two highlights:

    “As an all-purpose drill that is good for whatever ails your golf swing, this is probably the best.”

    and,

    “When I say slow motion, I mean REALLY SLOW, SLOW MOTION. If you think you are doing it in slow motion, do it even slower.”

  9. [...] he provided it the means to get that way.” Going Paleo? Email Template for Friends/Family Why Slow Movement Builds Coordination Everybody is an Emotional Eater Caption? How about… heavy squats, dammit. [...]

  10. Glenn says:

    Wow, what a great post. I just discovered this site, and I am very glad I did so. This re-enforces my inclination to take yoga to improve my weightlifting and proprioception.

    Btw, it seems some people are just born with good kinesthetic sense. My training partner is a top natural bodybuilder and very strong. We were squatting last year and when it was his turn, we miscommunicated and I put 5 lbs too much on one side of the bar. He was using over 400 lbs, so this was barely one percent of the total. Most people would never had noticed a five percent difference–or even more. Yet as soon as he finished, before he even looked at the weight, he asked, “How much did you put on? It’s uneven.”

  11. [...] Eating Tips – Food Renegade Why Slow Movement Builds Co-ordination – Todd [...]

  12. [...] get the knee, low back and other joints to become more coordinated?  I have discussed some ways in previous posts, but we can summarize here by saying that you should explore as many movement possibilities in your [...]

  13. [...] Method, including posts describing: Movement Efficiency; Making the Hard Easy and the Easy Elegant; Why Slow Movement Works; Skeletal Awareness; The Body Maps; Sensory Motor Amnesia; and Strategies to Cure Chronic [...]

  14. [...] me of follow-up comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Why Slow Movement Builds Coordination Basics of Coordination, Part One RSS [...]

  15. [...] the attention of the CNS away from learning and towards protecting. This will almost always require slowing the movement down and reducing the force of the movement from time to time. If you practice this way you will make [...]

  16. [...] out what to move, so consult a trainer or PT who knows their stuff. And how do you move? Anything mindful, precise, slow, curious and exploratory should work.  Z-Health, feldenkrais, somatics or tai chi are excellent [...]

  17. [...] to contract their muscles. One excellent way to train relaxation during movement is to do some slow coordination training like The Feldenkrais Method or  Z-Health. These exercises all have a primary intention of [...]

  18. [...] or physical performance are related to problems with the body maps. For example, as seen above, good coordination or movement skill depends on good body maps. Moving without pain and accurately sensing what is going on in the body [...]

  19. [...] and martial artist. The foundation of Z-Health is subtle isolated joint movements done in a very slow, precise and mindful manner. The intention is to cure is to improve the sensory and motor maps of [...]

  20. [...] of the maps are movements that are curious, exploratory, novel, interesting, rich in sensory input, slow, gentle, mindful, non-painful. Most of the material in this blog is essentially about how to move [...]

  21. [...] have written quite a bit on this blog about the practices I recommend for developing coordinated, comfortable and efficient movement. Finally, here is an [...]

  22. Alfons says:

    I recently read that there are five TYPES of senses: teleceptic, kinesthetic, proprioceptive, vestibular, tactile. I imagine millions of signals incoming every second.

    In common movement, I think, these signals are simply, mostly ignored. But when a person goes slow, and is PAYING ATTENTION to what he is receiving, there’s a lot to pay attention to. And to work with. And then the mind becomes quiet and alert. And one will find that going extremely slow is actually quite fast: because it’s such a rich, interesting experience.

  23. [...] write a lot on this blog about the value of moving slowly, mindfully, gently and playfully as an excellent way to develop efficient and pain free movement. [...]

  24. [...] Baby Liv Posted in Articles | Leave a comment I write a lot on this blog about the value of moving slowly, mindfully, gently and playfully as an excellent way to develop efficient and pain free movement. [...]

  25. [...] write a lot on this blog about the value of moving slowly, mindfully, gently and playfully as an excellent way to develop efficient and pain free movement. [...]

  26. Darren cain says:

    Todd,

    Having been coaching golf for 10 years now, I know a lot about how to move during amgolf swing, I have also been coaching slow motion movement for the same period of time. I thought it was my gig! I am delighted to have found that it’s more founded than I thought. I specialise in the method now for golf tuition and would love to know of any books or courses I could invest in to further my knowledge.

    Well done on a great post!

    Darren Cain

    • Todd Hargrove says:

      Darren,

      Yes golf seems to be one of the areas where many people have converged on the idea of using slow movement as a way to improve form.

      Books? I would recommend the Body has a MInd of its Own by Sandra Blaskeslee. Z-Health has some good courses that you might find interesting. I will be putting up a resources page in the next week or so that will have many more book recommendations.

  27. Jim Roach says:

    Greetings Todd,

    I think what you refer to is “external” movement alone, there is no mention of “internal” force (force that generates from the body core) whatsoever. In Classical Tai Chi there is “upper body turning”, “half body”, “quarter body”, etc. All make primary use of the body core to move the extremities. I don’t understand a leap in reasoning wherein one can talk about any movement and default it all as being internal.

    When the playing speed of “external” Tai Chi movements changes or one would say “slows”, the level of force will change. When the playing speed of “internal” slows the level of internal force of the movement will not change. It will in fact remain energized. For example: An external punch for instance has to re-energize, one has to continuously re-draw back the fist in order to punch. With a quarter body punch,this re-draw does not have to occur, the punch remains “energized” over and over again. This is one significant difference.

    The word “movement” and hence all movement is covered by default. One may be on track to discuss external in this regard but not internal.

    Here is an example of internal movement wherein the arm and core are used as a unit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Uo9lQ6azVA

    Best regards,
    Jim R

  28. Jim Roach says:

    Greetings,

    I should include an example of how an “internal” punch works, how internal energy does not slow down but is constantly energized. The learning of such internal discipline of the body core does not have to proceed from a premise that practice of slow movement will provide such iteration.

    Also, there is no point at which Hwa is “pushing”, it is a significant spike of energy and Tom is punched. Hwa is in no position to “push” to begin with. Hwa, who is 78 years old, demonstrated this same one inch punch on a boxer who had vehemently refused to use the pad and he collapsed into the arms of his friends.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ir4vQ8qzpKU&NR=1

    Best regards

    Jim R

  29. [...] Following is a link to an excellent article from the “Better Movement” site about the benefits of slow movement; http://www.bettermovement.org/2010/why-practice-slow-movement/. [...]

  30. [...] body maps and a good proprioceptive sense for better movement. The basic point is that we can all improve our movement by using various coordination exercises such as the Feldenkrais Method or Z-Health to clarify our [...]

  31. [...] movement I decided to be very careful, grade my exposure, and try brushing up on my skills in the absence of any major forces or stresses. To do that, I started with just dropping into a squat quickly as opposed to [...]

  32. [...] learning environment. So the movements in a Feldenkrais lesson are typically done as gentle and slow and easy as possible. Other similar training methods would include Alexander Technique and some forms of tai [...]

  33. Neil Keleher says:

    I love slow movement. One thing I would add is making slow movements smooth. In my own experience it’s “smooth” movement that you can learn to carry into fast movement.
    Something else that can be combined with slow and smooth movements is making the end points of the movement easy to feel.

  34. Very nice – one of the first things that my teacher asked me when I opened my own Aikido dojo was “Are you teaching them slowly?”.

  35. Shan says:

    Terrific article! Great to have found your site, some wonderful food for thought, thanks!

  36. Chase Hayden says:

    Great post. I am glad to have stumbled upon your site today. I look forward to reading more of your posts.

  37. So true.
    In weightlifting it is nearly impossible to learn the details of the lift if you use the most you can pick up. I start with a broomstick for sure, every time.

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